Cytotoxic Effect of flavonoids extracted from Conocarpus erectus leaves on SKG cell
Keywords:Cytotoxicity, Conocarpus erectus, Esophageal Cancer, SKG
The present study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic activity flavonoids extracted from Conocarpus erectus L. leaves using ethyl acetate and chloroform, the results of the extracted flavonoids were detected by HPLC. The evaluation of its cytotoxic effect on cancerous SKG cell line Human Esophageal Cancer and non-cancerous REF (rat embryonic fibroblast) using MTT assay. HPLC analysis of both extracts showed 6 out of 10 flavonoids matched the standard peaks which were (Catechin, Rutin, Myrecetin, Quercetin, Apigenine and Kaempferol). The cytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract was greater than that of the chloroform extract against the SKG cell line, and the cytotoxic effect of both extracts increased with increasing concentration. At 200 μl/ml the cytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts were 71% and 64.6%, respectively, while the cytotoxicity of the extracts on REF cells was 10.5% and 11.2%. This implies that C.erectus extract has little negative effects on normal cells and is thus a safe and promising anticancer drug candidate.
• Abdel-Hameed ESS, Bazaid SA, Shohayeb MM, El-Sayed MM and El-Wakil EA. (2012). Phytochemical studies and evaluation of antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial properties of Conocarpus erectus L. growing in Taif, Saudi Arabia. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2(2), p.93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2012/1040
• Al-Shammari AM, Salman MI, Saihood YD, Yaseen NY, Raed K, Shaker HK, Ahmed A, Khalid A and Duiach A. (2016). In vitro synergistic enhancement of Newcastle Disease Virus to 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Biomedicines, 4(1), p.3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4010003
• Bashir M, Uzair M and Chaudhry BA. (2015). A review of phytochemical and biological studies on Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae). Pak J Pharm Res, 1(1), pp.1-8.
• Dong G, Huang J and Du X. (2011). Enhanced reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity in Internet addicts: an fMRI study during a guessing task. Journal of psychiatric research, 45(11), pp.1525-1529. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.06.017
• Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C and Iqbal M. (2011). In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 4(9), pp.717-721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60180-6
• Imran Z, Muttaleb W, Kadhim W and Ali Z. (2019). First record of leaf blight and twig dieback caused by Stemphylium Sarciniforme on Conocarpus Erectus and educed a novel disease severity scale. Plant Archives, 19(1), pp.465-470.
• Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E and Forman D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 61(2), pp.69-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
• Khan M, Maryam A, Qazi JI and Ma T. (2015). Targeting apoptosis and multiple signaling pathways with icariside II in cancer cells. International journal of biological sciences, 11(9), p.1100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.11595
• Kopustinskiene DM, Jakstas V, Savickas A and Bernatoniene J. (2020). Flavonoids as anticancer agents. Nutrients, 12(2), p.457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020457
• Jabir MS, Taha AA, Sahib UI, Taqi ZJ, Al-Shammari AM and Salman AS. (2019). Novel of nano delivery system for Linalool loaded on gold nanoparticles conjugated with CALNN peptide for application in drug uptake and induction of cell death on breast cancer cell line. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 94, pp.949-964. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.014
• Markham KR. (1982). Techniques of flavonoid identification. Academic press.
• Bashir M, Uzair M and Chaudhry BA. (2015). A review of phytochemical and biological studies on Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae). Pak J Pharm Res, 1(1), pp.1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22200/pjpr.201511-8
• Mawalagedera SM, Callahan DL, Gaskett AC, Rønsted N and Symonds MR. (2019). Combining evolutionary inference and metabolomics to identify plants with medicinal potential. Frontiers In Ecology And Evolution, 7, p.267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00267
• Nascimento DK, Souza IA, Oliveira AFD, Barbosa MO, Santana MA, Pereira Junior DF, Lira EC and Vieira JR. (2016). Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in swiss albino mice. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88, pp.1431-1437. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620150391
• Özçelik B, Kartal M and Orhan I. (2011). Cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Pharmaceutical biology, 49(4), pp.396-402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.519390
• Rehman S, Azam F, Rehman S, Rehman TU, Mehmood A, Gohar A and Samad A. (2019). A review on botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological reports of conocarpus erectus. Pak J Agric Res, 32(1), pp.212-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2019/188.8.131.52
• Ren W, Qiao Z, Wang H, Zhu L and Zhang L. (2003). Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents. Medicinal research reviews, 23(4), pp.519-534. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/med.10033
• Safwat G, MM H and Helmy A. (2018). The biological activity of conocarpus erectus extracts and their applications as cytotoxic agents. Homologyonline, 2, pp.171-184.
• Sak K. (2014). Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types. Pharmacognosy reviews, 8(16), p.122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.134247
• Selassie CD, Kapur S, Verma RP and Rosario M. (2005). Cellular apoptosis and cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds: a quantitative structure− activity relationship study. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 48(23), pp.7234-7242. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jm050567w
• Sulaiman MB, Santuraki AH, Isa KA and Oluwasola OH. (2015). Geo-accumulation and contamination status of heavy metals in selected MSW dumpsites soil in Gombe, Nigeria. Education, 2016.